The red (Dap160 or dynamin) and green (SAP-47) overlay of the two images show that Dap160 and dynamin immunoreactivity overlaps with synaptic vesicles in Drosophila nerve terminals. This constraint results in a single algebraic equation whose root gives the membrane potential. Without Na,K-ATPases, the steady-state membrane potential is below the switching voltage of the activated chloride channels, and the chloride counter ions mask the movement of protons into the lumen. Advertisement Archived Tweets Load more View all tweets. Плазменная резка: Солнце с температурой 10 млн.°C, «Самая большая часть материи во Вселенной, высоко ионизирована, это плазма. Here, we model experiments that monitor membrane potential in addition to acidification. A similar class of experiments to those of Shi et al. 1991 involves measuring the fluorescence from whole populations of a specific organelle.
This scheme is applied to the photodissociation of NOCl after excitation to the S1surface. The free energy of ATP hydrolysis is 21 kBT. In principle, the pumping surface can be measured empirically. Our data demonstrate that storage-fat mobilization in the fly is coordinated by two lipocatabolic systems, which are essential to adjust normal body fat content and ensure lifelong fat-storage homeostasis. Motivated by Rybak et al. 1997, we give an explicit form for the membrane potential across the bilayer in terms of the excess charge inside the organelle. We assume that the net charge localizes to the lumenal leaflet, so that we can treat the membrane as a parallel plate capacitor. The amphiphysin consensus binding site (29) is indicated in bold type. Domain C did not bind to any proteins in rat brain cytosol but bound to a protein that co-migrated with clathrin inDrosophila head extracts.
Can this effect alone explain the decrease in pH along the secretory pathway?We have not been able to find data to directly model this question. Gen Comp Endocrinol 132: 10–20. 24. Staubli F, Jorgensen TJD, Cazzamali G, Williamson M, Lenz C, et al. (2002) Molecular identification of the insect adipokinetic hormone receptors. The bulk cytoplasmic pH is 7.4, but the proton concentration at the membrane is modified by a −50-mV surface potential. Water channels were also included in the simulation to allow volume change while the surface area remained constant. We assumed that the spherical vesicle was initially in osmotic equilibrium and that the osmolarity of the external medium was 291 mM, a typical cytoplasmic value.